Some uses of copyright protected material may fall outside the guidelines of the Fair Use Doctrine. The following are instances in which the use of photocopied, copyright protected material requires permission:
1. Repetitive Copying: The classroom or reserve room use of material in multiple courses or in successive offerings will normally require advance permission from the copyright owner (not necessarily the author). See 17 U.S.C. §107(1).
2. Copying for Profit: Faculty may not charge users more than the actual cost of photocopying the material. See 17 U.S.C. §107(1).
3. Consumable Works: The duplication of works that are consumed in the classroom, such as standardized tests, exercises, and workbooks, normally require permission from the copyright owner (not necessarily the author). See 17 U.S.C. §107(4).
4. Creation of Anthologies or Basic Text Material for a Course: The creation of a collection of work or an anthology by photocopying a number of copyrighted articles and excerpts to be purchased and used together as the basic text for a course will, in most cases, require the permission of the copyright owners (not necessarily the authors). See 17 U.S.C. §107(4).